Medicina e Morale https://medicinaemorale.it/index.php/mem <p><strong>Medicina e Morale. Rivista internazionale di Bioetica</strong>&nbsp;is a scientific bimonthly journal promoted by the Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore (UCSC). The Journal publishes original articles on bioethics, moral philosophy, medical ethics, deontology, philosophy of law, and related disciplines, as well as case studies in which ethical dilemmas are relevant. Started up by Catholic Doctors of Turin, with the aim of reflecting on medico-moral issues, the Journal has published the first issue in 1951, under the direction of Fr. Agostino Gemelli (UCSC’s Rector), Peter Sisto (Professor of Special Pathology at the University of Turin) and Peter Swifts (Professor of Biological Chemistry at the University of Milan). Physicians Enzo De Lorenzi and Gian Pietro Ravera worked as Editorial Staff. From No. 1 on 1955 “Vita e Pensiero” publisher bought the Journal, but Editor-in-Chief and Editor Staff were unchanged. In 1973 the above-mentioned publisher tried to implement the Journal by a major involvement of the Faculty of Medicine. Prof. Angelo Fiori, forensic scientist, became the Editor-in-chief and the Editorial Committee and the Editorial Staff were enlarged. In 1974 Prof. Elio Sgreccia started to collaborate with the Journal, and later he became Editor, alongside Prof. Fiori. The Journal broadened its horizon, dealing with Bioethics. After some administrative difficulties in 1983, “Medicina e Morale”, managed by the Faculty of Medicine at UCSC, came quickly to the milestone of over 3000 subscribers, partly from foreign countries. In December 2015, the Rector of UCSC has issued a decree on the journal "Medicina and Morale. Rivista internazionale di Bioetica”, which, together with the Code of ethics previously published, outlines the new structure, defining in more detail the scope and the role of the different organs. Prof. Antonio G. Spagnolo, director of the Institute of Bioethics and Medical Humanities of the UCSC, has been appointed as director. We can say with justifiable satisfaction, that now the Journal has a credit in Italy and in other countries around the world and it is present in several important Universities and Cultural Institutions.</p> PAGEPress Publications, Pavia, Italy en-US Medicina e Morale 0025-7834 Safety and bioethics in the days of Covid-19 https://medicinaemorale.it/index.php/mem/article/view/604 Antonio G. Spagnolo Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-04-20 2020-04-20 69 1 5 9 10.4081/mem.2020.604 Clinical trials and appropriateness of information verification https://medicinaemorale.it/index.php/mem/article/view/605 <p>In evaluating experimental protocols, Territorial Ethics Committees pay careful attention to the “Information Sheet” (in abbreviation: IS) to be submitted to patients, in order to verify its effectiveness and correctness of formulation, to the end of obtaining patients’ declaration of awareness, and unequivocal, free self-determination to participate in the proposed trials. It should be noted, however, that frequently the IS is drawn up with technical term and therefore not only is it inappropriate, but, in case of damages, it also appears as a sort of “waiver” of liability both for the investigator and for the sponsor, rather than an instrument of effective protection of patients. In this context, a statistical-cognitive survey was conducted on the data of the Ethics Committee of the University of Naples Federico II, concerning 1076 research protocols they examined in the period from 2012 to 2016. The survey showed that, also due to the widespread incidence of defensive medicine, the IS given to patients in profit- type protocols consisted of an average number of pages considerably higher than that of the no-profit clinical trials. This is a considerably important observation since the prolixity of the ISs – which sometimes are even longer than 40 pages - and their frequent lexical obscurity contrast with the message of essential clarity, which a free and conscious participation in the experimental trial must be based upon. Therefore, the activity carried out by Territorial Ethics Committees is strongly appreciated, as they play, among others, the irreplaceable role of guaranteeing the as-high-as-possible comprehensibility of the IS, precisely to protect patients’ right to decision-making autonomy, also in the delicate matter of clinical trials.</p> Claudia Casella Claudio Buccelli Adriana Scuotto Emanuele Capasso Copyright (c) 2020-04-20 2020-04-20 69 1 11 22 10.4081/mem.2020.605 The inclusive story of disability and autism: the cases of the Speechless and Atypical TV series https://medicinaemorale.it/index.php/mem/article/view/606 <p>The article begins by sketching an overview of how cinema and TV fiction have historically misrepresented disability. Drawing on recent reports on US Television and on some influential contributions within Disability Studies, the piece highlights the enduring presence of two problems: a lack of representation, and, when the issue is tackled, the use of stereotypes. A new critical category is then taken into account − «inspiration porn». Coined by disability rights advocates, it criticizes those cultural products where people with disabilities are diminishingly depicted with the only aim of giving people without disabilities the opportunity to feel positive emotions and fulfilment. Signs of change towards a more respectful representation of disability are perceivable in the international television offering, though. The article analyzes two recent TV series – Speechless and Atypical – which have tried to take a step forward the storytelling about inclusion. By focusing on ethical issues through the lenses of screenwriting theory, the analysis concentrates on two elements: how in the story the point of view of characters with disabilities and autism reveals their deep and rich interior life; how inclusion is presented to the audience as a feasible, motivating goal. In the light of the comparison of the two series, the article concludes by arguing that an ethical storytelling on disability should accomplish three general criteria: referential realism − being informative −, optative realism − a proactive take on drama − and anthropological realism – give actions and relationships the right meaning to help the character accomplish himself/herself as a human being.</p> Paolo Braga Copyright (c) 2020-04-20 2020-04-20 69 1 23 47 10.4081/mem.2020.606 The unspeakable of the human condition. Against Peter Singer's thesis https://medicinaemorale.it/index.php/mem/article/view/607 <p>The present work is based on Unspeakable Conversations, an article by Harriet McBryde Johnson in which the author recounts – as a person with an important physical disability – her encounter with Peter Singer, the Australian philosopher also known for having proposed as ethically legitimate the practice of infanticide for infants born with more or less serious disease. In this essay the conceptual elements with which Singer supports his thesis about selective euthanasia are discussed: preference utilitarianism as normative theory, the principle of minimizing suffering, the use of “quality of life” criteria and the notion of “person”, reformulated in functionalist terms. After a brief exposition of these assumptions, we proceeded to evaluate their theoretical consistency and to highlight their aporias. In short, Singerian ethics is incapable of giving an account of the complexity of human experience because it is characterized by a strongly reductionist anthropology, vitiated by prejudice against disability and incapable of understanding the human condition: an approach that introduces significant ethical and social consequences.</p> Valentina Voce Copyright (c) 2020-04-20 2020-04-20 69 1 49 69 10.4081/mem.2020.607 Intimacy and social media. A reflection from the thought of Michel Henry https://medicinaemorale.it/index.php/mem/article/view/608 <p>New media technologies have facilitated the spread of emotional culture. Under the imperatives of sharing and disclosure, users are asked to identify and rationalize their intimacy. Emotions are said and categorized, fixed in the virtual space, externalized and objectified through visual means of representation and language, thus becoming narratives accessible to the general public of followers. Online interactions, have freed individuals from the fear of face to face and social judgment, certainly favoring greater sharing and communication. However, a large amount of literature on this topic documents that the internet use has a strong negative impact, increasing the risk of depression and loneliness. Therefore, using the reflections of Michel Henry on this topic, the aim of this paper is to analyze the modalities of manifestation of intimacy, in order to understand what has been lost in the contemporary world.</p> Ilaria Malagrinò Copyright (c) 2020-04-20 2020-04-20 69 1 71 87 10.4081/mem.2020.608 Respect for autonomy and vulnerability https://medicinaemorale.it/index.php/mem/article/view/609 <p>One of the advances made by Bioethics has been respect for the autonomy of patients. However, the emphasis placed on this aspect of biomedical action has led to the identification of dignity of the person with autonomy. This article discusses the relationship between dignity, quality of life, autonomy and vulnerability. It shows how, through the care of vulnerable situations, it is possible to respect the value of human life.</p> Gustavo Páez Pilar De Antueno María Del Pilar López Gabeiras María Mercedes Trebín Copyright (c) 2020-04-20 2020-04-20 69 1 89 99 10.4081/mem.2020.609