Preimplantation diagnosis procedure appeared in the clinical practice together with the introduction of artificial fertilization techniques, as a way to improve the success of IVF and ICSI cycles by selecting the embryos of higher quality, which are more suitable for replacement into the uterus. Particularly, preimplantation genetic diagnosis was developed as an alternative to prenatal diagnosis to screen embryos for common or age-related aneuploidies for infertile couples, or to avoid the substantial risk of transmission of severe genetic diseases for fertile couples. Samples for preimplantation genetic diagnosis are obtained from oocytes or cleaving embryos after IVF or ICSI. Article reviews different techniques and clinical applications of the preimplantation diagnosis, it describes limits and risks of these procedures, and also represents the bioethical debate on this matter. Between the most important ethics concerns the problem of preimplantation diagnosis and embryo selection as alternative to abortion after post-implantation diagnosis, social sexing selection and for donors of stem cells selection appear. From the same bioethical debate the eugenic aim of preimplantation diagnosis emerges, a perverse aim because no individual human life can be evaluated, selected, left die or suppressed because of “its own quality”.
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